Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Uses and Identification
10. Salix alba
11. Salix arbuscula
15. Salix cinerea
17. Salix glauca
20. Salix lanata
23. Salix pentandra
25. Salix purpurea
26. Salix reticulata
27. Salix triandra
28. Salix viminalis
29. Salsola soda
32. Salvia aethiopis
36. Salvia dominica
37. Salvia glutinosa
38. Salvia hispanica
39. Salvia indica
40. Salvia lyrata
43. Salvia pratensis
44. Salvia sclarea
46. Salvia verbenaca
48. Salvia viridis
50. Sambucus ebulus
51. Sambucus nigra
60. Santalum album
67. Sarracenia flava
70. Satureja montana
71. Saururus cernuus
74. Saxifraga aspera
76. Saxifraga cernua
96. Scilla bifolia
97. Scilla peruviana
100. Scleria terrestris
101. Scolymus hispanicus
102. Scolymus maculatus
103. Scoparia dulcis
104. Scorpiurus muricatus
105. Scorzonera hispanica
106. Scorzonera humilis
108. Scots pine
111. Scrophularia nodosa
112. Scutellaria alpina
115. Secale cereale
116. Securigera varia
117. Sedum acre
118. Sedum album
119. Sedum dasyphyllum
120. Sedum sexangulare
121. Selaginella apoda
125. Sempervivum tectorum
126. Senecio congestus
127. Senecio elegans
128. Senecio glaucus
129. Senecio nemorensis
130. Senecio squalidus
131. Senecio sylvaticus
132. Senecio viscosus
133. Senecio vulgaris
134. Senegalia tenuifolia
135. Senna alata
136. Senna auriculata
137. Senna bicapsularis
138. Senna marilandica
139. Senna obtusifolia
140. Senna occidentalis
141. Senna sophera
142. Senna tora
143. Serapias lingua
144. Serratula tinctoria
146. Sesamum indicum
148. Sherardia arvensis
149. Sibbaldia procumbens
150. Sida cordifolia
151. Sida rhombifolia
152. Sideritis syriaca
153. Sideroxylon inerme
155. Silaum silaus
156. Silene antirrhina
157. Silene armeria
158. Silene conoidea
159. Silene coronaria
160. Silene gallica
161. Silene noctiflora
162. Silene nutans
163. Silene rupestris
164. Silene virginica
165. Silphium asteriscus
166. Silphium laciniatum
167. Sinapis alba
168. Sinapis arvensis
170. Sisymbrium irio
173. Sium latifolium
174. Sium sisarum
175. Smilax aspera
176. Smilax bona-nox
177. Smilax china
178. Smilax herbacea
179. Smilax laurifolia
180. Smilax pseudochina
181. Smilax rotundifolia
182. Smilax tamnoides
183. Smilax zeylanica
184. Smyrnium olusatrum
185. Solanum bahamense
186. Solanum campechiense
187. Solanum carolinense
188. Solanum diphyllum
189. Solanum dulcamara
190. Solanum incanum
191. Solanum lycopersicum
192. Solanum mammosum
193. Solanum melongena
194. Solanum nigrum
196. Solanum trilobatum
197. Solanum tuberosum
198. Solanum virginianum
199. Soldanella alpina
200. Solidago altissima
201. Solidago caesia
202. Solidago canadensis
203. Solidago flexicaulis
204. Solidago rigida
206. Solidago virgaurea
207. Sonchus arvensis
208. Sonchus asper
209. Sonchus oleraceus
210. Sonchus palustris
211. Sonchus tenerrimus
212. Sophora tomentosa
213. Sorbaria sorbifolia
214. Sorbus aucuparia
215. Sorbus domestica
217. Sparganium erectum
218. Sparganium natans
219. Spartium junceum
222. Spergula arvensis
223. Sphaeranthus indicus
225. Spinacia oleracea
226. Spiraea tomentosa
227. Spiranthes cernua
228. Spiranthes spiralis
229. Spondias mombin
230. Stachys palustris
231. Stachys sylvatica
232. Staphylea trifolia
233. Stellaria graminea
234. Stellaria holostea
235. Stellaria media
236. Stellaria nemorum
237. Sternbergia lutea
239. Stipa avenacea
240. Stipa pennata
241. Stone pine
242. Stratiotes aloides
243. Strychnos nux-vomica
244. Subularia aquatica
245. Summer savory
246. Suriana maritima
248. Swamp dewberry
249. Sweet pea
250. Swertia perennis
251. Symphoricarpos albus
255. Symphyotrichum laeve
259. Symphytum officinale
260. Symphytum tuberosum
262. Syringa vulgaris
263. Syzygium aromaticum
264. Syzygium jambos
265. Syzygium malaccense
In TCM: liǔ (S.
柳) or shuǐ
yáng (S. purpurea,
- Used for: pain relief (and is effective, obviously).
effects: may include stomach
upset, digestive system upset, itching, an
increased risk of children developing Reyes
syndrome, ulcers, stomach bleeding, and liver
(No better than aspirin, then.) Side effects from overdosing may include skin rash, stomach inflammation/irritation, nausea, vomiting, kidney inflammation, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Willow bark can be anywhere from .% to .% salicin (the active ingredient).
- Used as a sweetener.
side effects, but rare ones may include
bloating, nausea, dizziness, muscle pain, and
In TCM: bō (菠)
contribute to kidney stone formation by
increasing the amount of oxalate in the urine.
- Also called: garden sage, common sage
- Used in: vaginal steaming, aromatherapy
Claimed to: move blood
and chi through physical and emotional
obstructions, reduce loss of appetite, reduce
flatulence, reduce stomach pain, reduce
diarrhea, reduce stomach bloating, reduce
heartburn, reduce overproduction of
perspiration, reduce overproduction of saliva,
reduce depression, reduce memory loss, reduce
Alzheimer's disease, reduce painful menstrual
periods, reduce excessive milk flow during
nursing, and reduce hot flashes during
menopause, (when applied topically) help cold
sores, gum disease (gingivitis), sore
mouth/throat/tongue, swollen nasal passages, and
(when inhaled) reduce asthma.
- Beneficial effects:
potentially improve learning, memory, and
information processing for mild to moderate
memory and attention.
remove cold sores slightly slower than medical
symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes.
In one study,
sage extract significantly reduced
- Unproven effects:
Not known if
sage reduces lung cancer.
Not known if
sage helps sore throats.
Not known for
- Harmful effects:
officinalis contains thujone.
Thujone can be poisonous in sufficient doses,
and can cause seizures, damage to the liver, and
damage to the nervous systems. The amount of
thujone varies with the species of plant, the
time of harvest, growing conditions, and other
or breastfeeding, the risk of thujone poisoning
is especially high.
with higher risks of seizures, thujone is
reduce blood sugar, affecting patients with
diabetes and patients undergoing surgery.
(Salvia lavandulaefolia) may affect
estrogen-receptive growths, such as breast
cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer,
endometriosis, or uterine fibroids.
(Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase
blood pressure in those with high blood
pressure, while common sage (Salvia
officinalis) might lower blood pressure in
people with low blood pressure.
Used for: "blood purifying",
promoting sweating and urination, pain relief
and venereal disease
joint pain and preventing colds and flus. There is no evidence to support its use for these conditions.
effects: Sassafras is poisonous,
and even ml can be fatal. Side effects may
include cancer, liver damage and miscarriages.
Also, sweating and hot flashes. "High amounts
can cause vomiting, high blood pressure,
hallucinations, and more severe side effects. It
can cause skin rashes when used on the skin."
Sassafras had a long traditional use in the United States in foods, root beer, and tea. Sassafras was banned from interstate trade by the FDA in because of its high safrole content after safrole was discovered to be carcinogenic. Subsequently, sassafras has returned to the interstate food market after technology to remove safrole was implemented.
the fruit of a fan palm. Taken for BPH (benign
prostatic hyperplasia) a.k.a. Getting up
times at night to piss. Some studies
assert its effectiveness. Has been suggested as
a treatment for male pattern baldness, mainly
since finasteride, the first-line treatment for
MPB, is also effective against BPH. Evidence for
the latter use is inconclusive, so if you're
losing your mane, finasteride and minoxidil
remain your best bets.
effects: Short-term use may cause
stomach discomfort, cramps, and diarrhea.
Long-term use (over two weeks) can stop the bowels from functioning properly and cause dependence; it may also cause heart function disorders, muscle weakness, liver damage, and other side effects.
- Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) See Eleuthero
- Skullcap: See American skullcap, Chinese skullcap. European skullcap is used there as a substitute for American skullcap, and has similar ingredients.
fruit touted as a "wonder cure" for cancer.
Despite some promising results, there are no definite conclusions in this area. There are, however, definite indicators of a neurotoxic effect, with symptoms similar to Parkinsonism.
Used for: liver, stomach, gall
bladder and spleen problems,
and sometimes for irritable bowel syndrome.
effects: may include diarrhea,
nausea, bloating, gas, and upset stomach.
- Also called: blue skullcap, mad dog skullcap
Claimed to: Be good for tension,
anxiety, insomnia, neurasthenia, panic,
headaches, fatigue, depression, melancholy,
convulsions, jerking muscles, epilepsy,
wobbliness, heart trembles, depression,
arthritis, fever, snake bites, diuresis,
sedation, increasing vigor, rabies, and for PMS
when used with chaste tree (Vitex
Research: Not much research has
been done on the herb, so these claims can't be
effects: High doses can cause
giddiness, stupor, mental confusion, twitching,
irregular heartbeat, and seizures.
American skullcap has, on occasion, been contaminated with germander, which can cause liver damage. American skullcap has been implicated in some cases of liver damage.
dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum
In TCM: Dīngxiāng,
It is used for nasal polyps, ulcers, cracked nipples, carious teeth, and scorpion stings.
herbal medicine: topical
anesthesia in pre-modern dentistry. Also used as
an antimetic and antiseptic.
effects: Large amounts of cloves
or clove oil may cause nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, diarrhea, burns in the mouth and
throat, sore throat, seizures, difficulty
breathing, rapid heartbeat, sleepiness,
intestinal bleeding, and liver or kidney
More serious side effects may occur in children, even when small amounts are used. "Excessive application of undiluted clove oil on or near the teeth may cause irritation or damage to the gums or mouth and may damage the dental pulp, the soft core of the tooth, made up of living soft tissue and cells. … Undiluted clove oil may cause skin irritation, rashes, or even burns. Clove oil can cause blindness in laboratory animals, so keep clove preparations away from the eyes."
Usage: pain relief, secretion
reduction, soothing and softening tissues,
bleeding reduction, cooling and wound healing;
it is used internally for stomach problems and
topically for wounds.
Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed efficacy for treatment of pain, contusions and sprains.
effects: Can cause liver damage
leading to cancer and death.
Comfrey contains compounds called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), which have been shown by animal studies to cause liver tumours, so the plant may also cause cancer in humans. In humans, comfrey has been associated with veno-occlusive liver disease. Even topical use may lead to a dangerous build-up in the body of some of the herb's poisonous substances, so long-term use is not advised. Oral comfrey products are banned in the U.K., Australia, Canada, and Germany. Due to the danger of PA, only commerically-produced PA-free comfrey products should be consumed.
research to evaluate efficacy.
Used in Ayurvedic medicine.
effects: Country mallow contains
ephedrine, which is also found in ephedra, and
may cause ephedrine-related side effects like
high blood pressure, heart attacks, muscle
disorders, seizures, strokes, irregular
heartbeat, loss of consciousness, and death.
Other side effects may include dizziness, restlessness, irritability, insomnia, headache, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, flushing, tingling, difficulty urinating, kidney stones, and pounding heartbeat. May make anxiety, thyroid problems, and angina worse.
Claimed to: be an "Anthelmintic;
Antiscorbutic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic;
Emmenagogue; ... Poultice; Purgative", and
claimed to be good for stomach problems and
There is not enough evidence to evaluate these claims.
very toxic, and can cause liver damage, cancer,
and birth defects.
It should not be used.