Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Uses and Identification

 

              

S

1.      Sabatia angularis

2.    Saccharum officinarum

3.    Safflower

4.    Sagina procumbens

5.     Sagittaria sagittifolia

6.    Sagittaria subulata

7.     Sagittaria trifolia

8.    Salicornia europaea

9.    Salicornia virginica

10.                        Salix alba

11.  Salix arbuscula

12.Salix aurita

13.Salix babylonica

14.Salix caprea

15. Salix cinerea

16.Salix fragilis

17. Salix glauca

18.Salix hastata

19.Salix herbacea

20.                      Salix lanata

21.Salix lapponum

22.                       Salix myrtilloides

23.                       Salix pentandra

24.                       Salix phylicifolia

25.                       Salix purpurea

26.                       Salix reticulata

27.                       Salix triandra

28.                       Salix viminalis

29.                       Salsola soda

30.                      Salvadora persica

31.Salvia aegyptiaca

32.                       Salvia aethiopis

33.                       Salvia africana-caerulea

34.                       Salvia africana-lutea

35.                       Salvia canariensis

36.                       Salvia dominica

37.                       Salvia glutinosa

38.                       Salvia hispanica

39.                       Salvia indica

40.                      Salvia lyrata

41.Salvia mexicana

42.                       Salvia officinalis

43.                       Salvia pratensis

44.                       Salvia sclarea

45.                       Salvia urticifolia

46.                       Salvia verbenaca

47.                       Salvia verticillata

48.                       Salvia viridis

49.                       Sambucus canadensis

50.                       Sambucus ebulus

51. Sambucus nigra

52.                       Sambucus racemosa

53.                       Samolus valerandi

54.                       Sanguinaria canadensis

55.                        Sanguisorba canadensis

56.                       Sanguisorba officinalis

57.                        Sanicula canadensis

58.                       Sanicula europaea

59.                       Sanicula marilandica

60.                      Santalum album

61.Santolina chamaecyparissus

62.                       Santolina rosmarinifolia

63.                       Sapindus saponaria

64.                       Sapium glandulosum

65.                       Saponaria ocymoides

66.                       Saponaria officinalis

67.                       Sarracenia flava

68.                       Sarracenia purpurea

69.                       Satureja hortensis

70.                       Satureja montana

71. Saururus cernuus

72.                       Saw-wort

73.                       Saxifraga aizoides

74.                       Saxifraga aspera

75.                        Saxifraga bryoides

76.                       Saxifraga cernua

77.                        Saxifraga cespitosa

78.                       Saxifraga cotyledon

79.                       Saxifraga granulata

80.                      Saxifraga hirculus

81.Saxifraga oppositifolia

82.                       Saxifraga rivularis

83.                       Saxifraga rotundifolia

84.                       Saxifraga stellaris

85.                       Saxifraga tridactylites

86.                       Scabiosa atropurpurea

87.                       Scabiosa ochroleuca

88.                       Scabiosa stellata

89.                       Scandix pecten-veneris

90.                      Scheuchzeria palustris

91.Schinus molle

92.                        Schoenoplectus lacustris

93.                        Schoenoplectus mucronatus

94.                        Schoenus nigricans

95.                        Schwalbea americana

96.                        Scilla bifolia

97.                        Scilla peruviana

98.                        Scleranthus annuus

99.                        Scleranthus perennis

100.                   Scleria terrestris

101.                   Scolymus hispanicus

102.                   Scolymus maculatus

103.                   Scoparia dulcis

104.                   Scorpiurus muricatus

105.                   Scorzonera hispanica

106.                   Scorzonera humilis

107.                   Scorzoneroides autumnalis

108.                   Scots pine

109.                   Scrophularia auriculata

110.                   Scrophularia marilandica

111.                   Scrophularia nodosa

112.                   Scutellaria alpina

113.                   Scutellaria galericulata

114.                   Scutellaria lateriflora

115.                   Secale cereale

116.                   Securigera varia

117.                   Sedum acre

118.                   Sedum album

119.                   Sedum dasyphyllum

120.                   Sedum sexangulare

121.                   Selaginella apoda

122.                   Selaginella rupestris

123.                   Selenicereus grandiflorus

124.                   Sempervivum arachnoideum

125.                   Sempervivum tectorum

126.                   Senecio congestus

127.                   Senecio elegans

128.                   Senecio glaucus

129.                   Senecio nemorensis

130.                   Senecio squalidus

131.                   Senecio sylvaticus

132.                   Senecio viscosus

133.                   Senecio vulgaris

134.                   Senegalia tenuifolia

135.                   Senna alata

136.                   Senna auriculata

137.                   Senna bicapsularis

138.                   Senna marilandica

139.                   Senna obtusifolia

140.                   Senna occidentalis

141.                   Senna sophera

142.                   Senna tora

143.                   Serapias lingua

144.                   Serratula tinctoria

145.                   Sesame

146.                   Sesamum indicum

147.                   Shepherdia canadensis

148.                   Sherardia arvensis

149.                   Sibbaldia procumbens

150.                   Sida cordifolia

151.                   Sida rhombifolia

152.                   Sideritis syriaca

153.                   Sideroxylon inerme

154.                   Sigesbeckia orientalis

155.                   Silaum silaus

156.                   Silene antirrhina

157.                   Silene armeria

158.                   Silene conoidea

159.                   Silene coronaria

160.                   Silene gallica

161.                   Silene noctiflora

162.                   Silene nutans

163.                   Silene rupestris

164.                   Silene virginica

165.                   Silphium asteriscus

166.                   Silphium laciniatum

167.                   Sinapis alba

168.                   Sinapis arvensis

169.                   Sisymbrium altissimum

170.                   Sisymbrium irio

171.                   Sisymbrium officinale

172.                   Sisyrinchium bermudiana

173.                   Sium latifolium

174.                   Sium sisarum

175.                   Smilax aspera

176.                   Smilax bona-nox

177.                   Smilax china

178.                   Smilax herbacea

179.                   Smilax laurifolia

180.                   Smilax pseudochina

181.                   Smilax rotundifolia

182.                   Smilax tamnoides

183.                   Smilax zeylanica

184.                   Smyrnium olusatrum

185.                   Solanum bahamense

186.                   Solanum campechiense

187.                   Solanum carolinense

188.                   Solanum diphyllum

189.                   Solanum dulcamara

190.                   Solanum incanum

191.                   Solanum lycopersicum

192.                   Solanum mammosum

193.                   Solanum melongena

194.                   Solanum nigrum

195.                   Solanum pseudocapsicum

196.                   Solanum trilobatum

197.                   Solanum tuberosum

198.                   Solanum virginianum

199.                   Soldanella alpina

200.                   Solidago altissima

201.                   Solidago caesia

202.                   Solidago canadensis

203.                   Solidago flexicaulis

204.                   Solidago rigida

205.                   Solidago sempervirens

206.                   Solidago virgaurea

207.                   Sonchus arvensis

208.                   Sonchus asper

209.                   Sonchus oleraceus

210.                   Sonchus palustris

211.                   Sonchus tenerrimus

212.                   Sophora tomentosa

213.                   Sorbaria sorbifolia

214.                   Sorbus aucuparia

215.                   Sorbus domestica

216.                   Sorrel

217.                   Sparganium erectum

218.                   Sparganium natans

219.                   Spartium junceum

220.                   Spearmint

221.                   Spelt

222.                   Spergula arvensis

223.                   Sphaeranthus indicus

224.                   Spinach

225.                   Spinacia oleracea

226.                   Spiraea tomentosa

227.                   Spiranthes cernua

228.                   Spiranthes spiralis

229.                   Spondias mombin

230.                   Stachys palustris

231.                   Stachys sylvatica

232.                   Staphylea trifolia

233.                   Stellaria graminea

234.                   Stellaria holostea

235.                   Stellaria media

236.                   Stellaria nemorum

237.                   Sternbergia lutea

238.                   Stewartia malacodendron

239.                   Stipa avenacea

240.                   Stipa pennata

241.                   Stone pine

242.                   Stratiotes aloides

243.                   Strychnos nux-vomica

244.                   Subularia aquatica

245.                   Summer savory

246.                   Suriana maritima

247.                   Sutherlandia frutescens

248.                   Swamp dewberry

249.                   Sweet pea

250.                   Swertia perennis

251.                   Symphoricarpos albus

252.                   Symphoricarpos orbiculatus

253.                   Symphyotrichum cordifolium

254.                   Symphyotrichum ericoides

255.                   Symphyotrichum laeve

256.                   Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

257.                   Symphyotrichum novi-belgii

258.                   Symphyotrichum puniceum

259.                   Symphytum officinale

260.                   Symphytum tuberosum

261.                   Symplocarpus foetidus

262.                   Syringa vulgaris

263.                   Syzygium aromaticum

264.                   Syzygium jambos

265.                   Syzygium malaccense

 

 

Salix matsudana

  • Willow bark  (Salix spp.)
  • In TCM: liǔ (S. babylonica, ) or shuǐ yáng (S. purpurea, )
  • Used for: pain relief (and is effective, obviously).
  • Harmful effects: may include stomach upset, digestive system upset, itching, an increased risk of children developing Reyes syndrome, ulcers, stomach bleeding, and liver toxicity. (No better than aspirin, then.) Side effects from overdosing may include skin rash, stomach inflammation/irritation, nausea, vomiting, kidney inflammation, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Willow bark can be anywhere from .% to .% salicin (the active ingredient).

 

Stevia rebaudiana

  • Stevia  (Stevia rebaudiana)
  • Used as a sweetener.
  • Usually no side effects, but rare ones may include bloating, nausea, dizziness, muscle pain, and numbness.

 

Spinacia oleracea

  • Spinach  (Spinacia oleracea)
  • In TCM:  ()
  • May contribute to kidney stone formation by increasing the amount of oxalate in the urine.

 

 

Salvia officinalis

  • Sage  (usually Salvia officinalis, also Salvia lavandulaefolia, occasionally others )
  • Also called: garden sage, common sage
  • Used in: vaginal steaming, aromatherapy
  • Claimed to: move blood and chi through physical and emotional obstructions, reduce loss of appetite, reduce flatulence, reduce stomach pain, reduce diarrhea, reduce stomach bloating, reduce heartburn, reduce overproduction of perspiration, reduce overproduction of saliva, reduce depression, reduce memory loss, reduce Alzheimer's disease, reduce painful menstrual periods, reduce excessive milk flow during nursing, and reduce hot flashes during menopause, (when applied topically) help cold sores, gum disease (gingivitis), sore mouth/throat/tongue, swollen nasal passages, and (when inhaled) reduce asthma.
  • Beneficial effects:
  • May potentially improve learning, memory, and information processing for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
  • May improve memory and attention.
  • Appears to remove cold sores slightly slower than medical products.
  • May reduce "bad" cholesterol.
  • May reduce symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes.
  • In one study, sage extract significantly reduced ultraviolet-induced erythema.
  • Unproven effects:
  • Not known if sage reduces lung cancer.
  • Not known if sage helps sore throats.
  • Not known for other conditions.
  • Harmful effects:
  • Salvia officinalis contains thujone. Thujone can be poisonous in sufficient doses, and can cause seizures, damage to the liver, and damage to the nervous systems. The amount of thujone varies with the species of plant, the time of harvest, growing conditions, and other factors.
  • If pregnant or breastfeeding, the risk of thujone poisoning is especially high.
  • For persons with higher risks of seizures, thujone is especially dangerous.
  • Sage may reduce blood sugar, affecting patients with diabetes and patients undergoing surgery.
  • Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) may affect estrogen-receptive growths, such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids.
  • Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase blood pressure in those with high blood pressure, while common sage (Salvia officinalis) might lower blood pressure in people with low blood pressure.
  • Sage can cause drowsiness.

 

 

Sassafras albidum

  • Sassafras  (Sassafras spp.)
  • Used for: "blood purifying", promoting sweating and urination, pain relief and venereal disease joint pain and preventing colds and flus. There is no evidence to support its use for these conditions.
  • Harmful effects: Sassafras is poisonous, and even ml can be fatal. Side effects may include cancer, liver damage and miscarriages. Also, sweating and hot flashes. "High amounts can cause vomiting, high blood pressure, hallucinations, and more severe side effects. It can cause skin rashes when used on the skin." Sassafras had a long traditional use in the United States in foods, root beer, and tea. Sassafras was banned from interstate trade by the FDA in  because of its high safrole content after safrole was discovered to be carcinogenic. Subsequently, sassafras has returned to the interstate food market after technology to remove safrole was implemented.

 

 

Serenoa repens

  • Saw palmetto  (Serenoa repens)
  • Extract of the fruit of a fan palm. Taken for BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) a.k.a. Getting up  times at night to piss. Some studies assert its effectiveness. Has been suggested as a treatment for male pattern baldness, mainly since finasteride, the first-line treatment for MPB, is also effective against BPH. Evidence for the latter use is inconclusive, so if you're losing your mane, finasteride and minoxidil remain your best bets.

 

 

Senna alexandrina

  • Senna  (Senna alexandrina)
  • Effective for: constipation
  • Harmful effects: Short-term use may cause stomach discomfort, cramps, and diarrhea. Long-term use (over two weeks) can stop the bowels from functioning properly and cause dependence; it may also cause heart function disorders, muscle weakness, liver damage, and other side effects.

 

  • Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) See Eleuthero

 

  • Skullcap: See American skullcap, Chinese skullcap. European skullcap is used there as a substitute for American skullcap, and has similar ingredients.

 

  • Soursop  (Annona muricata)
  • A tropical fruit touted as a "wonder cure" for cancer. Despite some promising results, there are no definite conclusions in this area. There are, however, definite indicators of a neurotoxic effect, with symptoms similar to Parkinsonism.

 

 

Silybum marianum

  • Milk thistle  (Silybum marianum)
  • Used for: liver, stomach, gall bladder and spleen problems, and sometimes for irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Harmful effects: may include diarrhea, nausea, bloating, gas, and upset stomach.

 

 

Scutellaria lateriflora

  • American skullcap  (Scutellaria lateriflora)
  • Also called: blue skullcap, mad dog skullcap
  • Claimed to: Be good for tension, anxiety, insomnia, neurasthenia, panic, headaches, fatigue, depression, melancholy, convulsions, jerking muscles, epilepsy, wobbliness, heart trembles, depression, arthritis, fever, snake bites, diuresis, sedation, increasing vigor, rabies, and for PMS when used with chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus ) or false unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum ).
  • Research: Not much research has been done on the herb, so these claims can't be evaluated.
  • Harmful effects: High doses can cause giddiness, stupor, mental confusion, twitching, irregular heartbeat, and seizures. American skullcap has, on occasion, been contaminated with germander, which can cause liver damage. American skullcap has been implicated in some cases of liver damage.

 

dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum

  • Cloves  (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • In TCM: Dīngxiāng, 丁香. It is used for nasal polyps, ulcers, cracked nipples, carious teeth, and scorpion stings.
  • In Western herbal medicine: topical anesthesia in pre-modern dentistry. Also used as an antimetic and antiseptic.
  • Harmful effects: Large amounts of cloves or clove oil may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, burns in the mouth and throat, sore throat, seizures, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, sleepiness, intestinal bleeding, and liver or kidney failure. More serious side effects may occur in children, even when small amounts are used. "Excessive application of undiluted clove oil on or near the teeth may cause irritation or damage to the gums or mouth and may damage the dental pulp, the soft core of the tooth, made up of living soft tissue and cells. … Undiluted clove oil may cause skin irritation, rashes, or even burns. Clove oil can cause blindness in laboratory animals, so keep clove preparations away from the eyes."

 

 

Symphytum officinale

  • Comfrey  (Symphytum officinale)
  • Usage: pain relief, secretion reduction, soothing and softening tissues, bleeding reduction, cooling and wound healing; it is used internally for stomach problems and topically for wounds. Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed efficacy for treatment of pain, contusions and sprains.
  • Harmful effects: Can cause liver damage leading to cancer and death. Comfrey contains compounds called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), which have been shown by animal studies to cause liver tumours, so the plant may also cause cancer in humans. In humans, comfrey has been associated with veno-occlusive liver disease. Even topical use may lead to a dangerous build-up in the body of some of the herb's poisonous substances, so long-term use is not advised. Oral comfrey products are banned in the U.K., Australia, Canada, and Germany. Due to the danger of PA, only commerically-produced PA-free comfrey products should be consumed.

 

 

Sida cordifolia

  • Country mallow  (Sida cordifolia)
  • Not enough research to evaluate efficacy. Used in Ayurvedic medicine.
  • Harmful effects: Country mallow contains ephedrine, which is also found in ephedra, and may cause ephedrine-related side effects like high blood pressure, heart attacks, muscle disorders, seizures, strokes, irregular heartbeat, loss of consciousness, and death. Other side effects may include dizziness, restlessness, irritability, insomnia, headache, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, flushing, tingling, difficulty urinating, kidney stones, and pounding heartbeat. May make anxiety, thyroid problems, and angina worse.

 

Senecio vulgaris

  • Groundsel  (Senecio vulgaris)
  • Claimed to: be an "Anthelmintic; Antiscorbutic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; ... Poultice; Purgative", and claimed to be good for stomach problems and worms. There is not enough evidence to evaluate these claims.
  • Groundsel is very toxic, and can cause liver damage, cancer, and birth defects. It should not be used.