Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Uses and Identification




1.      Radish

2.    Randia aculeata

3.    Ranunculus abortivus

4.    Ranunculus aconitifolius

5.     Ranunculus acris

6.    Ranunculus aquatilis

7.     Ranunculus arvensis

8.    Ranunculus asiaticus

9.    Ranunculus auricomus

10.                        Ranunculus bulbosus

11.  Ranunculus ficaria

12.Ranunculus flammula

13.Ranunculus glacialis

14.Ranunculus lapponicus

15. Ranunculus muricatus

16.Ranunculus nivalis

17. Ranunculus repens

18.Ranunculus sceleratus


20.                      Raphanus raphanistrum

21.Raphanus sativus

22.                       Rauvolfia tetraphylla

23.                       Redcurrant

24.                       Reseda alba

25.                       Reseda lutea

26.                       Reseda luteola

27.                       Reseda phyteuma

28.                       Retama monosperma

29.                       Rhamnus alaternus

30.                      Rhamnus cathartica

31.Rhamnus frangula

32.                       Rheum rhabarbarum

33.                       Rheum rhaponticum

34.                       Rheum ribes

35.                       Rhexia mariana

36.                       Rhexia virginica

37.                       Rhizophora mangle

38.                       Rhodiola rosea

39.                       Rhododendron ferrugineum

40.                      Rhododendron hirsutum

41.Rhododendron lapponicum

42.                       Rhododendron maximum

43.                       Rhododendron viscosum

44.                       Rhubarb

45.                       Rhus copallina

46.                       Rhus coriaria

47.                       Rhus glabra

48.                       Rhynchospora alba

49.                       Rhynchostylis retusa

50.                       Ribes alpinum

51. Ribes cynosbati

52.                       Ribes grossularia

53.                       Ribes nigrum

54.                       Ribes oxyacanthoides

55.                        Ribes rubrum

56.                       Ribes uva-crispa

57.                        Ricinus

58.                       Ricinus communis

59.                       Rivina humilis

60.                      Robinia pseudoacacia

61.Rorippa palustris

62.                       Rosa canina

63.                       Rosa carolina

64.                       Rosa gallica

65.                       Rosa sempervirens

66.                       Rosa villosa

67.                       Roselle (plant)

68.                       Rosemary

69.                       Rosmarinus officinalis

70.                       Rostraria cristata

71. Rotala ramosior

72.                       Rubia peregrina

73.                       Rubia tinctorum

74.                       Rubus arcticus

75.                        Rubus caesius

76.                       Rubus canadensis

77.                        Rubus chamaemorus

78.                       Rubus hispidus

79.                       Rubus idaeus

80.                      Rubus moluccanus

81.Rubus occidentalis

82.                       Rubus odoratus

83.                       Rubus parvifolius

84.                       Rubus saxatilis

85.                       Rudbeckia hirta

86.                       Rudbeckia laciniata

87.                       Rudbeckia triloba

88.                       Ruellia tuberosa

89.                       Rumex acetosa

90.                      Rumex acetosella

91.Rumex alpinus

92.                       Rumex crispus

93.                       Rumex maritimus

94.                       Rumex obtusifolius

95.                       Rumex patientia

96.                       Rumex pulcher

97.                       Rumex scutatus

98.                       Ruppia maritima

99.                       Ruscus aculeatus

100.                  Ruscus hypoglossum

101.                    Ruta graveolens

102.                  Ruta patavina

103.                  Rutabaga

104.                  Rye


Ranunculus ficaria

  • Lesser Celandine  (Ranunculus ficaria)
  • A buttercup-like plant unrelated to the greater celandine, one of the poppy family
  • Usage: treating piles
  • Harmful effects: rare cases of hepatitis after use.


  • Chamomile  or camomile (Asteraceae  family)
  • Usage: Vaginal steaming
  • There are many species called chamomile, each with some level of distinct chemical properties. Despite this, chamomile is routinely treated as a single herb and proscribed as such. The two most common species are:
  • Two species are most commonly used, Matricaria nobilis (Roman chamomile) and M. chamomilla (German chamomile)



Rubia tinctorum

  • Madder root  (Rubia tinctorum)
  • Used as: an "astringent diuretic, emmenagogue", and claimed to be good for many conditions, including alkaline urine, diarrhea, inflammation, wounds, broken bones, fever, and many others. There is no evidence to support the use of madder root for any of these conditions. The root is used in Ayurveda and Hildegard medicine. Madder root is also used for dyeing fabrics.
  • Harmful effects: May cause cancer, birth defects, and miscarriages. It can also make urine, saliva, perspiration, tears, and breast milk turn red. One wonders if happier root would be any better. An extract of madder root, used as a food coloring in Japan, was found to cause liver cancer in rats.



Rosmarinus officinalis

  • Rosemary  (Rosmarinus officinalis)
  • In TCM: mí dié xiāng (迷迭香)
  • Used in: vaginal steaming
  • Claimed to: solve digestion problems, heartburn, flatulence, liver and gallbladder problems, lack of appetite, gout, coughing, headaches, high blood pressure, and age-related memory loss. No such effects have been proven.
  • Beneficial effects:
  • Lab work shows rosemary has antioxidant properties.
  • Studies suggest long-term rosemary use may prevent thrombosis  in humans.
  • Studies suggest rosemary may neutralize several foodborne pathogens.
  • One (one, badly designed, and small) study suggests rosemary, if used topically on the head, may help hair regrowth.
  • Two studies (small, aromatherapy, not compared to placebo) suggest it may help reduce stress.
  • Improved speed and accuracy on a test for a study of a sample  people when scent was inhaled.
  • Contains antioxidants  carnosic acid  and carnosol . No proven resulting benefits, however.
  • Is a little spicy and smells nice.
  • Harmful effects:
  • Is probably safe if the leaf itself is eaten; is rated as Generally Recognized as Safe in the U.S.; the German Commission E has approved it.
  • May impact blood clotting.
  • May impact ACE inhibitors, taken for high blood pressure.
  • Is diuretic .
  • May impact blood-sugar levels.
  • Large quantities of rosemary leaves can cause vomiting, spasms, comas, and pulmonary edema .
  • Large quantities of rosemary leaves may increase menstrual blood-flow and can cause miscarriage and is rated Possibly UnSafe in the U.S. Even while pregnant, however, it is safe to eat as a spice in food.
  • "People with high-blood pressure, ulcers, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis should not take rosemary."
  • Rosemary oil may be toxic if consumed orally.