JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA. Linn
N. ORD.-CONIFER . 166
SEX. SVST.—DlLECIA M0X.\1)ELI'111.\.
SYN. — JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, LINN.; JUNIPERUS SABINA, HOOK.
COM. NAMES.—RED CEDAR, JUNIPER, OR SAVIN; PENCIL CEDAR; i±-R.)
CEDRE DB VIRGINIB; (GER.) VIRGINISCHE CEDER, ROTH CEDER.
A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH TWIGS OF JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, LINN.
Description.—This evergreen species often attains a growth of from 60 to 90
feet in the East, though in the West it seldom grows much larger than a full-sized
shrub. /rWrt' very durable and compact, odorous, and of a reddiidi color. Branches
more or less horizontal. Leaves small, usually opposite in pairs, not articulated,
connate-decurrent upon the stems, awl-shaped, flattish, and scalaceous ; upon the
young branches acute, flattish, appressed imbricate, and often furnished with a
dorsal resin-gland ; midrib or nerve none. Inflorescctice small catkins terminating
lateral branchlets ; flowers dioecious, or in some cases monoecious. Fertile catkins
ovoid, scales 3 to 6, scarious, coalescent, each ovuled, and all uniting in fruit to
form a berry. Sterile catkins formed of 3 to 6 peltate scales ; anther-cells at the
base of the scales. Fruit a small, roundish-ovoid, berry-like drupe, erect upon its
pedicel-like branchlet and covered with a bluish bloom. Seeds i to 3, bony, wingless
; the lower portion covered with a scarious membrane, smooth ; the upper
traversed by a smooth ridge, dividing it into two verrucose parts ; cotyledons two.
History and Habitat.—The Red Cedar is common in sterile, dry soils in nearly
all portions of North America, Japan, and the West Indies, flowering in May.
This tree is noted, above all others in this country, for the durability of its
wood, no matter how exposed to changes of weather ; many of the houses along
the Jersey shore of New York Bay, built in the early days of the present century
and shingled with cedar, have roofs still in excellent condition, and many posts for