Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Uses and Identification



1.     Ebenus cretica

2.     Echinacea purpurea

3.     Echinops ritro

4.     Echinops sphaerocephalus

5.     Echium creticum

6.     Echium italicum

7.     Echium vulgare

8.     Eclipta prostrata

9.     Eggplant

10.                        Einkorn wheat

11.                        Elaeagnus angustifolia

12.                        Elatine alsinastrum

13.                        Elecampane

14.Eleocharis acicularis

15. Eleocharis palustris

16.Elephantopus scaber

17. Elettaria cardamomum

18.Elymus canadensis

19.Elymus hystrix

20.                      Elymus repens

21.Elymus virginicus

22.                       Emilia sonchifolia

23.                       Empetrum nigrum

24.                       Endive

25.                       Ephedra distachya

26.                       Epigaea repens

27.                       Epilobium hirsutum

28.                       Epilobium montanum

29.                       Epilobium palustre

30.                      Epipactis helleborine

31.Epipogium aphyllum

32.                       Equisetum arvense

33.                       Equisetum fluviatile

34.                       Equisetum hyemale

35.                       Equisetum palustre

36.                       Equisetum sylvaticum

37.                       Erechtites hieraciifolius

38.                       Erica abietina

39.                       Erica arborea

40.                      Erica carnea

41.Erica ciliaris

42.                       Erica cinerea

43.                       Erica multiflora

44.                       Erica scoparia

45.                       Erica tetralix

46.                       Erigeron acer

47.                       Erigeron alpinus

48.                       Erigeron annuus

49.                       Erigeron bonariensis

50.                       Erigeron philadelphicus

51. Erigeron uniflorus

52.                       Erigeron vernus

53.                       Erinus alpinus

54.                       Eriocaulon decangulare

55.                        Eriocephalus africanus

56.                       Eriophorum vaginatum

57.                        Erodium cicutarium

58.                       Eryngium alpinum

59.                       Eryngium amethystinum

60.                      Eryngium aquaticum

61.Eryngium campestre

62.                       Eryngium foetidum

63.                       Eryngium maritimum

64.                       Eryngium planum

65.                       Erysimum cheiranthoides

66.                       Erysimum cheiri

67.                       Erythrina herbacea

68.                       Erythronium dens-canis

69.                       Eugenia uniflora

70.                       Euonymus americanus

71. Euonymus europaeus

72.                       Eupatorium altissimum

73.                       Eupatorium cannabinum

74.                       Eupatorium chinense

75.                        Eupatorium hyssopifolium

76.                       Eupatorium perfoliatum

77.                        Eupatorium rotundifolium

78.                       Eupatorium sessilifolium

79.                       Euphorbia amygdaloides

80.                        Euphorbia antiquorum

81.Euphorbia canariensis

82.                       Euphorbia caput-medusae

83.                       Euphorbia chamaesyce

84.                       Euphorbia characias

85.                       Euphorbia corollata

86.                       Euphorbia cotinifolia

87.                       Euphorbia cyparissias

88.                       Euphorbia dendroides

89.                       Euphorbia esula

90.                      Euphorbia helioscopia

91.Euphorbia heterophylla

92.                       Euphorbia hirta

93.                       Euphorbia lathyris

94.                       Euphorbia maculata

95.                       Euphorbia mammillaris

96.                       Euphorbia myrsinites

97.                       Euphorbia origanoides

98.                       Euphorbia palustris

99.                       Euphorbia paralias

100.                  Euphorbia peplis

101.                    Euphorbia peplus

102.                  Euphorbia serrata

103.                  Euphorbia tirucalli

104.                  Euphorbia tithymaloides

105.                   Eurybia divaricata

106.                  Eurybia sibirica

107.                   Euthamia graminifolia

108.                   Eutrochium purpureum


Echinacea purpurea

  • Echinacea  (Echinacea spp.)
  • Usage: Claimed to be effective for supporting the immune system and preventing and treating colds and flus. It isn't.
  • E. angustifolia is used as an antispetic, blood cleanser, and to help digestion.
  • Harmful effects: Side effects may include headache, dizziness, nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, and rash.


Eleutherococcus senticosus


  • Eleuthero  (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
  • Usage: Like many other herbs, eleuthero is promoted for a wide variety of unrelated conditions. There is no evidence to support its effectiveness in treating anything.
  • Harmful effects: Side effects may include headache, diarrhea, nervousness, trouble sleeping, raised blood pressure and increased heart rate.
  • Beneficial effects: It may also lower blood sugar levels. "Eleuthero may alter the amount of time it takes for bleeding to stop."



Ephedra sinica

  • Ephedra (Ephedra spp.)
  • Also called: Ephedra sinica is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is known as má huáng (麻黃). Other species of Ephedra, known as "desert tea" or "Mormon tea", have been used by Native Americans and Mormons in the western United States.
  • In traditional Chinese medicine: It is used for promoting sweating and the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections during winter. Studies done on the active chemicals of Ephedra/ma huang demonstrates that it speeds the metabolism, thus, the reason for its use and abuse as a performance-enhancing drug by athletes and for weight loss.
  • In Western herbal medicine: Mormon tea is used for increasing urination, reducing fever, for kidney and bladder problems, and for syphilis.
  • Harmful effects: Side effects may include dizziness, restlessness, anxiety, irritability, heart pounding, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, hypertension, insomnia, arrhythmia, nervousness, tremor, seizure, cerebrovascular event, myocardial infarction, kidney stones, high blood pressure, heart attacks, muscle disorders, seizures, strokes, irregular heartbeat, loss of consciousness, death, and others.
  • Dietary supplements containing ephedra are banned in the U.S. because they pose "an unreasonable risk to health".


  • European birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis): See birthwort


uphrasia alpina

  • Eyebright  (Euphrasia spp.)
  • Usage: Used for eye problems.
  • Harmful effects: Side effects may include confusion, headache, tearing, itching, redness, vision problems, sneezing, nausea, toothache, constipation, cough, trouble breathing, trouble sleeping (insomnia), sweating, and others.

Epimedium grandiflorum

  • Horny goat weed  (Epimedium spp.)
  • Used for: erectile dysfunction in goats.
  • Can prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • Has totally awesome name.
  • Harmful effects: Evidence of side effects is largely anecdotal, and range from irregular heartbeat to mood changes.



Equisetum arvense

  • Horsetail  (Equisetum spp.)
  • In TCM: A. arvensewèn jīng (問荊); 'A. hyemalemùzé (木賊)
  • Used for: vaginal steaming; E. arvense' is used for lung problems (including tuberculosis), anemia and stomach and skin ulcers, urinary tract problems, water retention, excessive menstruation and vaginal discharge.
  • Insufficient research done on efficacy.
  • Side effects of long-term use may include low potassium levels and (in diabetics) low blood sugar.
  • Horsetail contains thiaminase, an enzyme which (if consumed), can cause thiamine  (or vitamin B) deficiency (called beriberi ). Thiaminase can be removed if horsetail is prepared properly, usually involving cooking.
  • Symptoms of beriberi may include difficulty walking, loss of feeling (sensation) in hands and feet, loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs, mental confusion/speech difficulties, pain, strange eye movements (nystagmus), tingling, vomiting, awakening at night short of breath, increased heart rate, shortness of breath with activity, and swelling of the lower legs. Beriberi, if caught early enough, can usually be reversed, but possible complications of beriberi may include coma, congestive heart failure, psychosis, and death. Because of the possibility of thiamine deficiency, people consuming horsetail should take thiamine supplements.
  • Horsetail contains chromium and may increase the risk of chromium poisoning if taken with chromium-containing herbs like bilberry, brewer's yeast, or cascara (Rhamnus purshiana).


Erythroxylon coca

  • Coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca)

See the main article on this topic: Coca

  • Usage: nasal congestion in powdered form pain relief and altitude sickness in the Andes. Coca regulates carbohydrate metabolism and normalizes body functions. Otherwise known as cocaine when refined, though the unrefined leaf isn't addictive. Side effects include turning into a yuppie, or a celebrity.
  • Endorsed by: Pope Leo XIII (coca-infused Vin Mariani), also enjoyed by Pope Pius X (Vin Mariani) and Pope John Paul II (coca tea). Pope Francis begged off the healthful coca and instead imbibed in the carcinogenic maté for his visit to the Andes.
  • Not to be confused with cocoa or coconuts.