Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Uses and Identification

 

C             

 

1.           Cadaba fruticosa

2.         Caesalpinia sappan

3.         Calamagrostis arundinacea

4.         Calamagrostis epigejos

5.          Calamus rotang

6.         Calendula officinalis

7.          Calla palustris

8.         Callicarpa americana

9.         Calligonum polygonoides

10.                         Calophyllum inophyllum

11.   Calopogon tuberosus

12. Caltha palustris

13. Calypso bulbosa

14. Calystegia sepium

15.  Camellia japonica

16. Camellia sinensis

17.  Campanula americana

18. Campanula cervicaria

19. Campanula glomerata

20.                       Campanula latifolia

21. Campanula medium

22.                        Campanula patula

23.                        Campanula persicifolia

24.                        Campanula pyramidalis

25.                        Campanula rapunculoides

26.                        Campanula rapunculus

27.                        Campanula rotundifolia

28.                        Campanula spicata

29.                        Campanula trachelium

30.                       Campanula uniflora

31. Campsis radicans

32.                        Campyloneurum phyllitidis

33.                        Canary grass

34.                        Canella winterana

35.                        Canna glauca

36.                        Canna indica

37.                        Cannabis sativa

38.                        Caper

39.                        Capnoides

40.                       Capparis cynophallophora

41. Capparis spinosa

42.                        Capsicum annuum

43.                        Capsicum frutescens

44.                        Caraway

45.                        Cardamine hirsuta

46.                        Cardamine impatiens

47.                        Cardamine pentaphyllos

48.                        Cardamine pratensis

49.                        Cardiospermum halicacabum

50.                        Cardoon

51.  Carduus acanthoides

52.                        Carduus crispus

53.                        Carduus nutans

54.                        Carex acuta

55.                         Carex arenaria

56.                        Carex canescens

57.                         Carex cespitosa

58.                        Carex globularis

59.                        Carex hirta

60.                       Carex leporina

61. Carex limosa

62.                        Carex nigra

63.                        Carex panicea

64.                        Carex pilulifera

65.                        Carex pseudocyperus

66.                        Carex pulicaris

67.                        Carex saxatilis

68.                        Carex vesicaria

69.                        Carica papaya

70.                        Carlina acaulis

71.  Carlina corymbosa

72.                        Carlina vulgaris

73.                        Carpinus betulus

74.                        Carthamus lanatus

75.                         Carthamus tinctorius

76.                        Carum carvi

77.                         Caryophyllus aromaticus

78.                        Caryota urens

79.                        Cashew

80.                       Cassia fistula

81. Cassia javanica

82.                        Cassine peragua

83.                        Cassytha filiformis

84.                        Catananche caerulea

85.                        Catnip

86.                         Conium maculatum

87.                         Conocarpus erectus

88.                         Conoclinium coelestinum

89.                         Consolida ajacis

90.                         Convallaria majalis

91.                         Convolvulus althaeoides

92.                         Convolvulus arvensis

93.                         Convolvulus cantabrica

94.                         Convolvulus cneorum

95.                         Convolvulus scammonia

96.                         Convolvulus tricolor

97.                         Conyza canadensis

98.                         Corchorus capsularis

99.                         Corchorus olitorius

100.                                       Corchorus siliquosus

101.                                       Cordia myxa

102.                                       Cordia sebestena

103.                                       Coreopsis auriculata

104.                                       Coreopsis lanceolata

105.                                       Coreopsis tripteris

106.                                       Coreopsis verticillata

107.                                       Coriander

108.                                       Coriandrum sativum

109.                                       Coriaria myrtifolia

110.                                       Coris monspeliensis

111.                                       Cornus canadensis

112.                                       Cornus florida

113.                                       Cornus mas

114.                                       Cornus sanguinea

115.                                       Cornus suecica

116.                                       Coronilla valentina

117.                                       Cortusa matthioli

118.                                       Corydalis solida

119.                                       Corylus avellana

120.                                       Corylus colurna

121.                                       Corynephorus canescens

122.                                       Corypha umbraculifera

123.                                       Cota tinctoria

124.                                       Cotula coronopifolia

125.                                       Cotyledon orbiculata

126.                                       Crambe maritima

127.                                       Crassula aquatica

128.                                       Crassula tetragona

129.                                       Crataegus azarolus

130.                                       Crataegus coccinea

131.                                       Crataegus crus-galli

132.                                       Crataegus viridis

133.                                       Crepis biennis

134.                                       Crepis bursifolia

135.                                       Crepis capillaris

136.                                       Crepis foetida

137.                                       Crepis paludosa

138.                                       Crepis pulchra

139.                                       Crepis rubra

140.                                       Crepis tectorum

141.                                       Crepis vesicaria

142.                                       Crepis zacintha

143.                                       Crescentia cujete

144.                                       Crinum americanum

145.                                       Crinum asiaticum

146.                                       Crinum latifolium

147.                                       Crithmum maritimum

148.                                       Crocus sativus

149.                                       Crocus vernus

150.                                       Crotalaria juncea

151.                                       Croton tiglium

152.                                       Cruciata laevipes

153.                                       Cryptogramma crispa

154.                                       Cryptotaenia canadensis

155.                                       Cucumber

156.                                       Cucumis anguria

157.                                       Cucumis melo

158.                                       Cucumis sativus

159.                                       Cucurbita pepo

160.                                       Cumin

161.                                       Cuminum cyminum

162.                                       Cupressus sempervirens

163.                                       Curcuma longa

164.                                       Cuscuta europaea

165.                                       Cyanotis cristata

166.                                       Cyathea arborea

167.                                       Cycas circinalis

168.                                       Cyclanthera pedata

169.                                       Cymbalaria muralis

170.                                       Cymbidium aloifolium

171.                                       Cymbidium ensifolium

172.                                       Cynara cardunculus

173.                                       Cynara scolymus

174.                                       Cynoglossum officinale

175.                                       Cynoglossum virginianum

176.                                       Cynometra cauliflora

177.                                       Cynomorium coccineum

178.                                       Cynosurus cristatus

179.                                       Cynosurus echinatus

180.                                       Cyperus articulatus

181.                                       Cyperus echinatus

182.                                       Cyperus elegans

183.                                       Cyperus esculentus

184.                                       Cyperus fuscus

185.                                       Cyperus haspan

186.                                       Cyperus iria

187.                                       Cyperus odoratus

188.                                       Cyperus papyrus

189.                                       Cyperus rotundus

190.                                       Cyperus strigosus

191.                                       Cypripedium calceolus

192.                                       Cystopteris bulbifera

193.                                       Cystopteris fragilis

194.                                      Cytinus hypocistis

195.                          Cytisus scoparius

196.                   Caucalis daucoides

197.                   Cayratia trifolia

198.                   Ceanothus americanus

199.                   Cedronella canariensis

200.                Celastrus scandens

201.                  Celosia argentea

202.                 Celosia argentea var cristata

203.                 Celosia cristata

204.                 Celtis australis

205.                 Celtis occidentalis

206.                 Cenchrus echinatus

207.                 Centaurea calcitrapa

208.                 Centaurea cineraria

209.                 Centaurea cyanus

210.                  Centaurea jacea

211.                    Centaurea melitensis

212.                   Centaurea montana

213.                   Centaurea nigra

214.                   Centaurea phrygia

215.                   Centaurea scabiosa

216.                   Centaurea solstitialis

217.                   Centella asiatica

218.                   Cephalanthera longifolia

219.                   Cephalanthus occidentalis

220.                 Cerastium alpinum

221.                   Cerastium arvense

222.                 Cerastium cerastoides

223.                 Cerastium tomentosum

224.                 Ceratonia siliqua

225.                  Ceratophyllum demersum

226.                 Cerbera manghas

227.                  Cercis canadensis

228.                 Cercis siliquastrum

229.                 Cestrum diurnum

230.                 Cestrum nocturnum

231.                   Chaerophyllum bulbosum

232.                 Chaerophyllum temulum

233.                 Chaiturus marrubiastrum

234.                 Chamaemelum nobile

235.                  Chamaerops humilis

236.                 Chamerion angustifolium

237.                  Chara vulgaris

238.                 Chelidonium majus

239.                 Chelone glabra

240.                 Chenopodiastrum murale

241.                   Chenopodium album

242.                 Chenopodium vulvaria

243.                 Chickpea

244.                 Chicory

245.                  Chimaphila maculata

246.                 Chimaphila umbellata

247.                  Chionanthus virginicus

248.                 Chives

249.                 Chondrilla juncea

250.                 Chrozophora tinctoria

251.                   Chrysanthemum indicum

252.                  Chrysobalanus icaco

253.                  Chrysogonum virginianum

254.                  Chrysophyllum cainito

255.                  Chrysosplenium alternifolium

256.                  Cicer arietinum

257.                  Cicerbita alpina

258.                  Cichorium endivia

259.                  Cichorium intybus

260.                 Cicuta bulbifera

261.                   Cicuta maculata

262.                 Cicuta virosa

263.                 Cinchona officinalis

264.                 Cionura erecta

265.                  Circaea lutetiana

266.                 Cirsium acaule

267.                  Cirsium altissimum

268.                 Cirsium arvense

269.                 Cirsium dissectum

270.                 Cirsium eriophorum

271.                   Cirsium helenioides

272.                  Cirsium heterophyllum

273.                  Cirsium mexicanum

274.                  Cirsium oleraceum

275.                  Cirsium palustre

276.                  Cirsium spinosissimum

277.                  Cissampelos pareira

278.                  Cissus trifoliata

279.                  Cistus albidus

280.                 Cistus crispus

281.                   Cistus monspeliensis

282.                 Citharexylum spinosum

283.                 Citron

284.                 Citrus aurantium

285.                  Citrus medica

286.                 Cladanthus mixtus

287.                  Cladium mariscus

288.                 Claytonia sibirica

289.                 Claytonia virginica

290.                 Clematis flammula

291.                   Clematis integrifolia

292.                 Clematis orientalis

293.                 Clematis recta

294.                 Clematis vitalba

295.                  Clematis viticella

296.                 Cleome gynandra

297.                  Cleome ornithopodioides

298.                 Cleonia lusitanica

299.                 Clerodendrum infortunatum

300.                Clethra alnifolia

301.                  Clitoria mariana

302.                 Clitoria ternatea

303.                 Clusia major

304.                 Clutia pulchella

305.                 Cneorum tricoccon

306.                 Cnicus benedictus

307.                 Cnidoscolus urens

308.                 Cochlearia danica

309.                 Cochlearia officinalis

310.                  Cochliasanthus caracalla

311.                    Coconut

312.                   Cocos nucifera

313.                   Codiaeum variegatum

314.                   Coeloglossum viride

315.                   Coffea arabica

316.                   Coix lacryma-jobi

317.                   Colchicum autumnale

318.                   Colchicum variegatum

319.                   Collinsonia canadensis

320.                 Colutea arborescens

321.                   Comarum palustre

322.                 Commelina benghalensis

323.                 Commelina communis

324.                 Commelina erecta

325.                  Commelina tuberosa

326.                 Common fig

327.                  Common wheat

328.                 Comptonia peregrina

 

Cannabis sativa

  • Marijuana (Cannabis spp.)

See the main articles on this topic: Marijuana and Marijuana woo

  • In TCM: C. sativa or dàmá (大麻). The flowers are used for "wind" diseases, menstrual disorders and wounds. The seeds (actually the achene) are used for many diseases. In modern analyses are generally considered to be low in psychoactivity, but have measurable levels of cannabidiol (CBD).
  • Effects may include mild euphoria, relaxed muscles, increased appetite and… wait, what? Did I say that out loud? Whoa… Have you ever looked at your hand? I mean REALLY looked at your hand? Side effects include paranoia and apathy. Marijuana and other cannabis products have little or no 'healing' purposes, but may relieve symptoms of other conditions or diseases. It is considered one of the safest substances of abuse, including legal drugs, such as alcohol, which is not to say that it is risk free.

 

Citrus × aurantium

  • Bitter orange  (Citrus × aurantium)
  • Also called: Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, marmalade orange
  • Claimed to: help expel farts, be a stimulant, aid the stomach, also used as a general tonic
  • Beneficial effects: May be effective as a topical treatment for fungus infections.
  • Harmful effects: Internal use may increase risk of high blood pressure, fainting, heart attack, stroke, and other severe side effects, especially if taken with caffeine. The essential oil is phototoxic; topical use of the undiluted essential oil can cause phytophotodermatitis upon exposure to UV light.

 

 

Chelidonium majus

  • Greater Celandine  (Chelidonium majus)
  • Usage: Everything.
  • Useful for: Nothing.
  • Harmful effects:
  • May cause hepatitis.

 

Chrysanthemum × morifolium

  • Chrysanthemum  (Asteraceae family)
  • In TCM:  (.) Aster trinervius (mǎ lán, 馬嵐) is used to treat hemorrhaging, animal poisoning, malaria, and a disease called (shā) (literally, "sand disease"). Chrysanthemum sinense (菊花júhuā) is used for many diseases.
  • Insufficient research to evaluate efficacy. Chrysanthemum can cause the skin to be more sensitive to the sun.

 

 

Cinnamomum cassia bark

  • Cinnamon  (Cinnamomum spp.)
  • Most of the spice sold in the U.S. as culinary cinnamon is from the species C. cassia, a.k.a. Chinese cinnamon. Most of the health studies have been on true cinnamon (C. verum).
  • In TCM: several species of Cinnamomum (zhāng, ) are used: C. camphora (camphor); C. cassia C. japonicumC. loureiroiC. obtusifolium and C. pedunculatum. It is used as a stomachic, stimulant, carminative, astringent, sedative, and tonic. It is used for colic, excessive sweating, postpartum difficulties and hair treatments. It was said that "if cassia was taken with toad's brains for seven years, one could walk on the surface of the water and never grow old or die; and Chao, the hunch-back, took the drug continuously for twenty years, with the result that hair grew on the bottom of his feet; he was able to walk five hundred li ( miles) in a day, and lift a weight of one thousand chin (, pounds)."
  • Claims: Lowers LDL cholestrol, maintains blood sugar, promotes appetite for elderly and sick, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, stops tumor growth, anti inflammatory, arthritis, hair loss and bladder infections, colds, upset stomach, and even pimples.
  • Truth: Apparently, it really does stop tumor growth — when it is injected into tumors in mice. Clearly, it's not really a home remedy. The indications are quite good that it has an effect on blood sugar, however the details remain unknown. None of the other claims seem to hold up, however.

 

 

Citrus × paradisi

  • Grapefruit seed extract (Citrus × paradisi)

See the main article on this topic: Grapefruit seed extract

  • Claimed to: be a good disinfectant. This effect is due not to the grapefruit seed extract itself, which is not antimicrobial, but to contaminants/additives such as benzethonium chloride and triclosan, which are frequently found in grapefruit seed extract products.

 

 

Camellia sinensis

  • Green tea (Camellia sinensis)

See the main article on this topic: Green tea

  • In TCM: chá ()
  • Used for weight loss.
  • Side effects may include stomach upset and constipation, and, in rare cases, liver damage. Caffeine-related side effects may include headache, nervousness, sleep problems, vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, irregular heartbeat, tremor, heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, confusion, and reduced absorption of iron from food. Also implicated in outbreaks of Britishness. Jolly splendid, indeed!

 

 

clockwise from top left: C. coccineaC. punctata var. aurea, C. ambiguaC. douglasii

  • Hawthorn  (Crataegus spp.)
  • In TCMC. pinnatifida is shānzhā (山楂); C. cuneata is shānzhā guǒ (山楂果). It is eaten as food, but also used for backache, diarrhea, ulcers and rashes.
  • In Western herbal medicine: cardio-vascular diseases, anxiety, muscle spasms and insomnia
  • Harmful effects: can adversely interact with prescription drugs for cardiovascular diseases (e.g. digoxin, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase- inhibitors, and nitrates), nausea, nose bleeds, dizziness, insomnia
  • Efficacy: There is some evidence of improvement for heart failure symptoms with hawthorn extract, but also some evidence that it causes increased risk of death. There is insufficient evidence for treatment of other maladies.

 

 

Convallaria majalis

  • Lily-of-the-valley  (Convallaria majalis)
  • Used for: epileptic seizures, strokes, angina, conjunctivitis, leprosy, laxative, "neurasthenia", unconsciousness from stroke, epilepsy, edema and heart problems. Not enough studies have been done to evaluate any of the claims.
  • Harmful effects: The plant is poisonous and can be fatal. Doses must be very specific and prescribed by a professional (although what with the lack of evidence, what's the point?) Self-medication or wrong doses may result in blurred vision, excessive urination at night, halos around objects, diarrhea, Loss of appetite, Stomach pain, Vomiting or nausea, irregular or slow heartbeat confusion, depression, disorientation, drowsiness, fainting, headache, lethargy, weakness, rash, and hives.

 

Chamaemelum nobile

  • Roman chamomile  (Chamaemelum nobile)
  • Also called: camomile, English chamomile, garden chamomile, ground apple, low chamomile, or whig plant. Is a subset of chamomile.
  • Used in: vaginal steaming
  • Claimed to: calm frayed nerves, treat stomach problems, relieve muscle spasms, treat skin conditions, treat infections, treat nausea, treat vomiting, treat heartburn, treat loss of appetite, treat intestinal gas, relieve anxiety, reduce inflammation from cuts or hemorrhoids, help with burns, be antibacterial, be antiviral, be antifungal, treat morning sickness, treat painful menstrual periods, treat sinusitis, treat liver and gallbladder disease, deal with gallstones, prevent heartburn, ease the discomfort of swollen gums, treat ear inflammation, treat sore throats, and "purify" the blood.
  • Beneficial effects:
  • May reduce flatulence; insufficient research.
  • Insufficient evidence for treatment of painful periods.
  • Harmful effects:
  • Considered "generally safe".
  • May be allergenic to those allergic to asters, daisies, chrysanthemums, or ragweed.
  • May cause miscarriage when pregnant. Do not take while pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • May worsen asthma.
  • Moderate sedative.
  • Thins the blood.
  • May lower blood sugar.
  • If too much is drunk, may cause vomiting.
  • May be dangerous to women with estrogen-sensitive conditions, such as cancer.
  • Interacts with the liver, potentially causing changes in other drugs.